Best Non Toxic Cookware for Healthy Cooking 2022
There are many types of cookware that are used in the kitchen. Some of these include non toxic cookware, which is a type of cookware that is made from materials that are safe for human consumption. These types of cookware are great for people who want to avoid using toxic chemicals or other harmful substances in the kitchen. It is important that you choose the right kind of cookware for the type of food you are cooking. The best non toxic cookware for healthy cooking will allow you to make healthier meals. This article will help you pick the best non-toxic cookware for healthy cooking.
How to Take Care of Non-Toxic Cookware:
Every type of cookware has many care instructions. But there’re some universal best practices when it comes to extending the life of any non-toxic pan or pot. That includes
Avoid metal utensils: if the brand says that our cookware’s are scratch-resistant, we like to play it opt and safe for wooden silicone spatulas and spoons when flipping and frying. It ensures the cookware will last for many years. The stainless steel is impervious to abuse.
Washing by hands: again, various brands provide products that are dishwasher safe, which is a great plus, but still, we prefer to hand-wash our pans and pots to keep them in its shape.
Cleaning with sponge: here, we recommend you do not take your steel-wool scrubber to coated pans. We are not saying it will scratch them, but why we risk it? A single drop of dish soap, a free soak, and a gentle scrubby sponge should do the job just fine.
Avoid extreme temperatures: before you slap that skillet a giant flame, make sure you know what temperature is safely handled. And when you are done cooking, allow the pan to cool before running it under the cold water. Otherwise, you risk warping cookware, and no one needs a wonky pan.
Our Pick Up of Top 10 Best Non Toxic Cookware
- AmazonBasic Non-Stick Cookware
- Rechael Ray Cucina Nonstick Cookware
- Rachael Ray Cucina Hard-Anodized Nonstick Cookware
- Cook N Home Nonstick Ceramic Coating Cookware
- Cuisinart Advantage Ceramica Cookware
- T-fal Hard-Anodized Nonstick Cookware
- Nutrichef Nonstick Cookware
- GreenPan Valencia Toxin-Free Nonstick cookware
- GreenPan Lima Ceramic Nonstick Cookware
- Farberware Ceramic Nonstick Cookware
1. AmazonBasic Non-Stick Cookware
If you’re looking to get new pans and pots by replacing old cookware set, then it’s well is the right to do it. The AmazonBasic 8-pieces non-stick cookware set that includes 9-inches fry pan broil container 9.4 inches, 6.3 inches saucepan with the cover. The saucepan with the lid, casserole pan with cover non-stick covering for cleaning and cooking. Its comfortable, delicate handles let you stay cool while using the dishwasher.
It’s easy for simple cleanup and works electric and gas stovetops alike. The superior non-stick properties and heat distribution ability make it easier to propane daily meals with the set. Cook almost everything like steak, fries, fried price and roast, stew on set. Moreover, it’s essential to clean cookware after every use to increase the lifetime of products.
The cookware doesn’t need extra care or attention. Clean your cookware set manually using the soft scrubber and soap. The superior non-stick properties and heat distribution ability make it easy to propane daily meals with the set. You can cook everything like steak, fries, fried price, roast, and stew on set.
Features of AmazonBasics
- Eight pieces non-stick cookware set includes ten and 8-inch frying pan, 1.5-quart saucepan with lid, 3-quart casserole pan with a lid, and 2-quart saucepan with a lid.
- Nonstick coating with the aluminum pan for easy cleaning and cooking.
- Soft-touch handles stay cool during use; vented glass lid lets steam escape
- The spiral bottom of all pieces heats evenly, compatible with electric, gas, and glass stovetops.
Specifications of AmazonBasic
|Product Dimensions ||21.57 x 12.36 x 4.88 inches|
|Item Weight||10.5 pounds
AmazonBasic Non-Stick Cookware
- Eight inches non-stick set includes all essentials.
- Every piece has a robust aluminum body
- It requires low care and maintenance
- Nonstick coating makes the cleaning process simple and easy.
- Large pan never comes with a lid
- Not compatible with metal utensils as well as a metal scrubber.
2. Rechael Ray Cucina Nonstick Cookware
When it comes down to classic earth style, the Rachael cookware set will display you how it stands up the hype and is gorgeous to look at. The stylish and resilient collection of functional cookware will set heat a flutter. As sleek the Rachael hard porcelain enamel cookware appears to be, it never displays when it comes to cooking food.
The agave blue color 12 pieces non-stick cookware is made of aluminum and hard enamel porcelain exteriors. The 12 pieces cookware set has a hard enamel interior that is free of PFOA for cooking. Use low to moderate heat when cook to avoid burning the dual riveted rubberized stainless steel handles. Use the cookware in the oven, but shouldn’t exceed 400 degrees. With great features at the best price, its excellent addition to any kitchen.
The lightweight set will satisfy all cookware requirements with the stainless handles that are riveted on an extra secure and shatterproof glass lid that keeps heat and moisture in and allow you to see meals as they progress through each cooking stage. The cookware is compatible with all cooktops except the inductive pans and pots system.
Features of Racheal
- Durable non-stick cookware is crafted with excellent quality aluminum and sturdy hard enamel porcelain exteriors.
- Cookware includes 1- & 3-quart saucepans with lids, stockpot with lid, quart sauté pan with lid, spoon, and turner
- The Enhanced PFOA free non-stick cookware set that comes with the espresso colored, for effortless food release.
- The 12 piece set boasts dual riveted rubberized stainless steel handles, and shatter-resistant glass lids include a spoon and slotted turner.
- It is completely oven-safe up to 400 F, and pans and pots are suitable for stovetops.
- This cookware features modern design and rustic colors that fuses relaxed style and functionality
Specifications of Rachael
|Item Dimension||s 22 x 11 x 13 inches|
|Produt Weight|| 1 pounds
Rechae Nonstick Cookware
- Hard anodized aluminum is twice as hard as stainless steel and is long-lasting.
- Pans and pots are oven safe and dishwasher safe
- The cookware set is available with various color handles.
- Enamel is thick enough and even to create an excellent cook throughout the food.
- Aluminium is lightweight which is especially if you cook a lot for many people
- It’s sturdily built for long-term use
- Has non-stick coating for easy cleaning and cooking
- Its oven safe up to 400 degrees F
- Racheal ray offers a lifetime limited warranty
- High price with amazing features
- Not dishwasher safe
- Doesn’t prepare food heavily as it has PTFE
3. Rachael Ray Cucina Hard-Anodized Nonstick Cookware
The good news with these lightweight aluminum pans and pots set for seniors is that you don’t have to compromise much on the look of the product. Some pans sets look cheaper and student-friendly with their stainless steel shine and thin materials.
There’re also other have a colorful coating and attention to detail on design to appeal to a broader audience. One important thing that does well is the Rachael Ray set. Hence, The brand name alone is enough to appeal to most people. But there’s something stylish in design.
The set uses grey hard-anodized aluminum with espresso-colored non-stick coating and brightly colored handles. It is easy to clean hard anodized cookware exterior. These handles are either orange, red, and blue, which means a lightweight, reliable set that looks good hanging on a rack or left out on the countertop. However, for any seniors use this with a gas stove. Pans have a sliding habit on these old burners, which could be a safety risk.
Features of Rachael
- Quick to heat, durable, oven-safe cookware set
- The set boasts hard-anodized construction for swift, oven safe up to 400 degrees F
- Pan interiors are coated in durable, espresso colored non-stick for impeccable release
- 2-quart saucepans with lid, 6-quart stockpot with lid, 10 inches fry pans
- For easy cleaning dishwasher safe cookware.
- The dual riveted handles and shatter-resistant glass lid and lifetime warranty
Specifications of Rachael
|Item Dimensions||22 x 11 x 13 inches|
|Product Weight|| 16 pounds
|Color|| Gray with Red Handles
Rachael Ray Nonstick Cookware
- Elegant design
- Quality of materials
- Lightweight set
- Compatibility problems with induction stoves
- Safety concerns about gas stoves
4. Cook N Home Nonstick Ceramic Coating Cookware
The cooks N Home non-stick is a bright red cookware set that is keen on design as well as function. The set of the ceramic cookware includes ten pieces, out of which you get six pans, four tempered glass lids, including a 6-quart Dutch oven, two saucepans, a casserole, and two fry pans.
Every pan is from thick gauge aluminum for even heat distribution and helps it last longer. It’s then coated with PTFE and PFOA free environmentally friendly ceramic coating. They feature anti-slip handles that stay cool to touch to make cooking pleasurable. However, the pans also won’t work on induction cookers because their base material is aluminum.
The set is entirely scratch resistant. The internal coating also made a food release so it is easy to clean. The anti-slip handles of pans provide an excellent grip, and it stays fresh all time. With pan and pot tempered glass lids with steam vent, you can get the ability to cook better and faster. The hardened glass enables you to see cooking without losing steam or heat by opening.
Features of Cook N Home
- Its made of thick gauge aluminum that gives even heat conduction and prevents hot spots
- Non-stick ceramic coating makes cleaning easy, food release and allow for healthy cooking
- Tempered glass lids to view food, handles stay fresh and easy to handle.
- Work on electric, gas, ceramic, halogen, and dishwasher safe
Specifications of Cook N Home
|Product Dimensions||20.5 x 13.5 x 8 inches|
|Manufacturer||Cook N Home
|Item Weight||15.92 pounds
Cook N Home Nonstick Cookware
- Ten pieces of pans and pots
- Made of thick gauge aluminium for heat distribution.
- Tempered glass lid for easy food monitoring
- The package comes at a great price
- Elegant design
- Free from harmful chemicals
- Not dishwasher safe
- Pans neither dishwasher not oven safe
5. Cuisinart Advantage Ceramica Cookware
If you are a housewife and on a low budget and need a high-quality cookware set, we recommend you choose Cuisinart. The Cuisinart 54C-11BK advantage of ceramic cookware set is affordable and durable. The 11-piece cookware set is designed that it will make the kitchen look more fantastic. The cookware set has aluminum at the core of the pan, which ensures that there is even heat distribution.
This shows hot spots. Moreover, it has a titanium-reinforced ceramic non-stick interior for easy cleaning and food release. A unique feature of this cookware is that it’s completely free of dangerous chemicals such as PFOS, PFOA, and PTFE. The handles of the cookware are comfortably built for easy cooking. The glass lid protects the loss of moisture and heat, while at the same time allow you to monitor the food.
Features of Cuisinart
- The titanium-reinforced ceramic non-stick interior will not discolor or stain and completely PFOA, PTFE, and PFOS free.
- The silicone handles are riveted for durability and strength and specially designed to stay cool on the stovetop.
- Tempered glass-covered lid fit tightly to the lock-in flavor, nutrients, and texture.
- The rims of the set are tapered to make pouring comfortable and clean.
- The cookware is freezer safe for food storage and comes with a lifetime warranty.
Specifications of Cuisinart
|Product Dimensions ||11 x 24.13 x 14 inches|
|Item Weight|| 1 pounds
Cuisinart Ceramica Cookware
- Handles give comfort to the cook
- Built of durable aluminum material for longevity and even heat distribution.
- The Nonstick surface is easy to clean.
- It’s completely free of PTFE, PFOA, and PFOS, which are dangerous to human health.
- The glass lid allows viewing the food without any loss of heat
- It should be handled with good care because it’s not very durable.
6. T-fal Hard-Anodized Nonstick Cookware
T-fal’s will be perfect for you if the high prices are keeping you from investing in hard anodized cookware. This cookware offers excellent value for money. It includes various vital pieces such as 10.25- and 8-inches fry pans, 3-quart saucepans with lids, quart Dutch oven, and spatula and spoon. The complete set comes in a gray color that will look great in any kitchen. Its durable and titanium non-stick interior is scratch-resistant so that you can use metal utensils without any scratch.
When you finish cooking, put it in the dishwasher for great results of effortless cleaning. We were impressed when we put the pans and pots to the test in the kitchen. Additionally, When you use this cookware, you’ll see the unique thermo-spot heat indicator, a circle in the center of every fry pan that turns red when gill the juicy steak, you’ll get delicious food.
Moreover, the T-Fal cookware is oven safe up to 400 degrees Fahrenheit, so your pan can go straight from stovetop to oven. Because the handles of the cookware are made from silicone, there’s no need to worry about burning hands when you take them out. Handles also have holes, to provide flexibility to hang the pans and pots if you require to save space. The glass lid allows steam to escape, and you can monitor what’s cooking.
Features of T-fal
- A perfect workhorse in the kitchen, hard-anodized aluminum retains heat and has a more robust protective layer than the original material, which makes it scratch and corrosion-resistant. It won’t react to acidic foods.
- The ring around spot turns red to display when pans are preheated, and ingredients are ready to be added preheating is key to sealing in cooking food evenly.
- The reinforced, toxin-free non-stick interior, which is scratch-resistant, stands up to regular use and keeps food smoothly along the surface.
- The silicone handles are specially designed for safety and comfort; the vented tempered glass lid maintains visibility while trapping heat and moisture for great results.
- The cookware is suitable for all stovetop, its oven-safe up to 400 degrees and dishwasher safe.
- The t-false heat system is a three-ingredient recipe for delicious cooking results every single time, longer-lasting, and
- superior non-stick coating.
Specifications of T-fal
|Product Dimensions||24 x 12 x 13 inches|
|Item Weight||3.04 ounces
|Manufacturer|| Groupe SEB
T-fal Nonstick Cookware
- Thermo spot indicator
- Built to perform
- Durable non-stick cookware
- Vented lids and riveted handles
- Suitable for all stovetops
- Dishwasher safe products
- The pan becomes scratched and needs to be replaced.
7. Nutrichef Nonstick Cookware
The Nutrichef is the renowned name for kitchenware and kitchen appliances. That’s why the specifications, features, design, reliability of the cookware set make it one of the Best non toxic pans and pots for gas stoves. It’s the premium non-stick coating that allows convenient tossing and easy cleaning, and healthy, comfortable cooking at all times.
The cookware set is equipped with one of the great grill pans for gas stoves available in the market. Moreover, the lid and handles of the cookware are made of high-quality. The ergonomic handles of the pans come with the cool touch technology. Additionally, the lids are made of top-notch tempered glass.
This best cookware set comes with the blue diamond ceramic design exterior that makes it durable for even distribution of heat across the cookware. The set is entirely safe to use on all stovetops and cooktops that include ceramic, gas, induction, electric, and ovens. You can use all these utensils for cooking practically anything that you want.
Features of Nutrichef
- The non-stick cookware set includes a 1.7qt saucepan pot, 2.1 cooking pot lid, large and small fry pan, soup spoon, spatula, pasta fork.
- The non-stick pot set cooking ware features a long-lasting and durable coating for easy cleaning, tossing, and healthy cooking.
- This pots set features cool-touch handles and heat resistant, which ensures safe and comfortable cooking.
- It also offers a sleek and elegant diamond line pattern that adds a modern and stylish touch to pans and pots.
- The frypans are safe for use in aluminum coating thickness of 25 to 35um, which includes heat resistant silicone utensils.
Specifications of Nutrichef
|Product Dimensions ||23.6 x 7.87 x 15 inches|
|Item Weight||14.81 pounds
Nutrichef Nonstick Cookware
- Reinforced aluminum design
- Silicone handle grips
- Tempered glass lids
- Premium non-stick ceramic coating
- Great for all stovetops
- Pots and pans bottom thickness is 3.5mm
- Ten years limited warranty
- Dishwasher safe
- Lightweight and durable
- Chipped edges after prolonged use
8. GreenPan Valencia Toxin-Free Nonstick Cookware
The GreenPan pro is a reliable set of cookware with a durable and greener footprint construction. It’s easy to access, use, and has a traditional look. The cookware pieces use hard-anodized aluminum for structure, which is scratch-resistant and durable. Hence, The base is induction capable thanks to particles infused with copper. The structure of the cookware is reliable than traditional cooks and aluminum on all kinds of cooktops. It offers the best non toxic pan for eggs.
The interior of the set uses a ceramic-based non-stick coating, which helps prevent food from sticking and withstand a variety of cooking utensils, including metal. You must use gentle cooking utensils, and it won’t ruin the surface if someone uses metal. The handles of the set are made of stainless steel, which doesn’t conduct heat, helps them stay cool during cooking. The lids of the set are made of glass with stainless handles, so keep an eye on food without breaking the moisture seal.
The dark exterior color of cookware help to prevent scratches from showing and doesn’t stain with high heat. All pieces have straight sides in a classic design with long handles that are comfortable to hold. Moreover, the interior of light gray helps you to keep an eye on hiding and browning any reactive stains from salty or acidic foods. They’re quite easy to clean, oven safe and dishwasher and go from the kitchen to table with ease.
Features of GreenPan
- Durable hard anodized body for scratch resistance and maximum strength
- Magneto induction base incredible browning and searing on all stovetops.
- The good ceramic non-stick coating is free of PFOA, PFAS lead, and cadmium, so it can’t release toxic fumes even if it’s overheated.
- The dishwasher is safe for big messes, grill, and oven safe up to 600F, glass lid up to 425F.
- Stainless steel handles for easy carrying and safe for use with the metal utensils.
Specifications of GreenPan
|Product Dimensions||20 x 4 x 12 inches|
|Item Weight|| 10 pounds
- Minimal staining
- Induction capable
- Durable ceramic non-stick surface
- Dishwasher safe but should hard wash
9. GreenPan Lima Ceramic Nonstick Cookware
GreenPan lima ceramic cookware is the best choice for your kitchen use. The original Green pan brand makes the cookware. The set has basics that you’ll need to make the best meal and easy to clean with appropriately used.
What gets out attention about the set of GreenPan ceramic cookware is that it’s linked with the Thermolon ceramic coating. It’s completely POFA free that is supported to provide off little to no toxic chemicals, persistent pollutants, and fumes. The ceramic coating is claimed out to peel or blister-like other kinds of ceramic cookware.
This best non toxic cookware comes with features of stainless steel handles. They are riveted for secure handling and durability. Moreover, stainless steel enables you to cook food with pans & pots on the stove inside and on top of the oven. Hence, the lids of the best non toxic pans and pots are made from tempered glass. The manufacturer made the lid this way so you could monitor food while cooking.
Features of GreenPan
- The cookware has a transparent lid which gives proper monitoring of food and keeps food warm after cooking.
- The material doesn’t contain any toxic materials. Neither does have pollutants, so it makes it environmentally friendly.
- The cookware is made of durable materials.
- Excellent heat conduction ensures the best cooking experience
- Handles are easy to grip which is a non-conductor of heat
- It’s quite easy to clean since its non-stick
- The coating of materials doesn’t peel off nor blister.
Specifications of GreenPan
|Product Dimensions ||22 x 13 x 11 inches|
|Item Weight|| 11 pounds
GreenPan Lima Cookware
- More environment friendly since you can cover what you’re cooking
- Lead allows retaining heat, thus keep food warm.
- Cannot transfer petroleum base particles to food
- Set is cost-friendly
- Not great with excessive heating
- Non-sticky nature doesn’t last forever
10. Farberware Ceramic Nonstick Cookware
Everyday meal-making, freshen up easy and worry less about cleanup, with the excellent cooking performance of colorful, dishwasher safe, and durable ceramic non-stick 12 piece cookware set. The quality of the set begins with the innovative non-stick technology a textured. The qualified surface coupled with the ceramic non-stick to boost food release and easy cleanup.
The set sturdy handles feature stainless steel accents, and a shatter-resistant glass lid lock in heat allows you to monitor the cooking process. The 12 piece cookware set is complete with three nylon kitchen tools that slotted turner, a solid spoon, a slotted spoon, best use in the ceramic non-stick pans and pots.
This best non toxic cookware is oven safe up to 350 degrees. It also comes with a lifetime limited warranty. So, get the cooking performance with the excellent cookware set. It offers you the best non-stick ceramic cookware sets at a high price so that you can get it in four different colors, such as blue, lavender, gray, and Aqua.
Features of Farberware
- Pans and pots feature Farberware ceramic non-stick for superb food release with easy cleanup.
- The sturdy aluminum pans and pots set heats fast and evenly on the cooktop and are oven safe 350F
- The elegant handles of pans and pots with distinctive stainless steel accents and cookware sets include three nylon cooking tools.
- The glass lids keep heat and moisture. The cookware set features a lifetime warranty.
Specifications of Farberware
|Product Dimensions||22 x 13.63 x 10 inches|
|Item Weight|| 15.3 pounds
- Sturdy aluminum construction and shatterproof glass lid
- 12 piece ceramic cookware set with three utensils
- Elegant design with different colors
- Backed by a lifetime warranty from farberware
- Oven safe up to 350 degrees F
- Ceramic coating isn’t the toughest on the list
How to Choose Best Non Toxic Cookware Set
Buying the pots and pans is all about the materials. Metalwork as the vehicle that delivers heat to the food, it’s essential to know which kind of material will serve you perfect before you hit the kitchen store. Here are some cookware materials that will help you to choose the best cookware.
Stainless steel is the preferred cookware material for home cooks. It’s easy to clean, impervious to stains, non-reactive, and resistant to warp. However, stainless steel itself is not an excellent conductor to heat; it can be one of the active materials in the kitchen when paired with other materials.
It’s a cost-effective and efficient way to get the best results. Combining stainless steel with aluminum and copper will ensure heat distribution and also improve the conductivity of the Best non toxic cookware. The combination of materials is excellent for stovetop pans like pots, cookers, and pans. It’s also dishwasher safe.
Carbon Steel Cookware
Carbon steel is a reliable, durable cookware option that used to make crepe and woks pans. It’s known for its strength and heating. This material is excellent for high heat cooking. The carbon steel is similar to cast iron and requires seasoning, primarily upon first use. The carbon steel cookware provides quick heating, suitable for high-heat, and durable cooking.
Try to avoid scouring pads and abrasive cleaners when cleaning carbon steel cookware. Like many cooks prefer to wipe clean the pans after cooking. Moreover, if cleaning is required, you can clean carbon steel pans in warm soapy water, dry completely, and then re-season before the next use.
Cast Iron Cookware
Cast iron cookware is long-lasting, reliable, and extremely versatile. Hence, This thick, heavy metal has a sturdy crystalline structure, which makes it durable. Other metals may efficient at conducting heat, but cast iron outranks them all when it comes to retaining temperature. From slow and low cooking to fast searing, cast iron is best for maintaining and holding heat, even when you add the food to the pan.
The cast iron is a variation of classic cookware that features a hard enameled coating. While the cast iron can reactive to foods high in acidity, enameled cast iron is non-reactive and doesn’t require to be seasoned. Enamel is a fragile material and can prone to chipping or cracking if overheated or mishandled.
The perk of glass cookware is there’s the tone of budget-friendly glass options out there. You can find everything from soup dishes to around baking dishes to loaf pans.
When it comes to ceramic cookware, there’re two options: ceramic non-stick cookware and 100% ceramic cookware. The latter comes to a hefty price tag due to the process, which ensures fully ceramic cookware doesn’t leach or have an explosive reaction.
There’re some models built using other materials aside from ceramic with PTFE free non-stick materials. It comes with a ceramic base. The aluminum and cast iron coating offer an extra layer of durability. Ceramic cookware is likely to break under high-temperature and drastic changes, so they must be stored at room temperature. Best non toxic cookware is eco-friendly and quite easy to maintain. The ceramic cookware doesn’t offer heat distribution like stainless steel options.
Pans and pots are made of pressed aluminum are excellent heat conductors and lightweight that are particularly best for when even heating is not essential. The aluminum cookware is inexpensive and easy to maintain option if cared for properly. However, aluminum is metal, so it’s prone to denting and warping.
Is Teflon stable and safe?
Yes, Teflon is safe and stable. Moreover, if the temperature is above 570F, the Teflon coating starts to break down and release toxic chemicals. Inhaling them cause polymer fume fever.
Aluminum cookware's are safe?
When you cook food in aluminum, don't react with cookware, so it's safe. But it shouldn't use with acidic products, which may ruin the food and cookware both.
Stainless steel cookware is safe or not?
The US drug and food administration considers the stainless steel is as safe for food and cooking unit it contains at least 16% chromium.
The ceramic cookware's are safe?
The ceramic cookware doesn't have any harmful chemicals, so it is entirely safe. You can quickly cook delicious food without any worry of harmful chemicals.
The toxins non-stick cookware is linked to all kinds of health issues, from asthma to cancer, hormonal, and obesity issues. If you have Teflon non-stick cookware, throw it out quickly, especially if it has scratches, and replace them with ceramic cookware. Use the best non toxic cookware.
Hopefully, now you know all about famous non-toxic cookware brands. Not just that, but you know what to look for and what to avoid when it comes time to pick out the next cookware set. Though the best non toxic cookware history is long, it can be expected to carry on the future and produce safer items for home cooks like you.
After all the above information, you may leave asking which non-toxic cookware is safest? All the brands in the guide can be trusted with home’s safety when it comes to cooking. All the brands have earned customers trust by non-toxic coating and reliable construction.[kkstarratings]